Bu Blogda Ara

15 Şubat 2012 Çarşamba



Prof. Dr. Mehmet Tunçer
Abant Izzet Baysal University





















“How sky buy or sell? We do not possess the clean airand glitter water. How you would buy these from us? Every part of the world isholy and lofty for my nation with our memories and experiences. We know thatwhite man does not understand our customs. He is an alien who come at night andtake everything that he needs from soil. World is not his friend but his enemy,and goes ahead while he captures the world. He steal world from children. Hisappetite absorbs world greedily, and leave a desert behind. When all kind ofanimals annihilated, we will die due to the loneliness of our souls, what hashappened to animals will happened to us similarly. Everything depends upon eachother. What has happened to world will similarly occur to children of theworld. ” [1]


Politicaleconomy takes part in social sciences. Social life is complicated and hasdifferent directions, which covers politics, economy, culture, art andideology. Different directions of social life are examined by various sciences.Political economy investigates society’s economic life and material productionsphere. Production has two aspects, that is, technical and societal. Intechnical aspect, production is examined by technical and natural sciences. Asdifferent from these sciences, political economy deals with societal structureof production. The term ‘Political Economy’ is derived from “oykonomia” term that means administrationscience and “politikos” term thatmeans government administration[2].

Bio-politics,contrary to political economy, investigates not societal life and production,but modifications, corruptions and pollutions in nature and life itself due totechnological revolution and social progress, and search for new progressesoccurred in every branch of sciences.  Bio-politicsaims to integrate “environment”dimension to every branches of sciences and arts as products of human beings- suchas science and technology, diplomacy, international collaboration, health,sports, energy, economy, communication modes, theology, philosophy, law,literature, history, mythology, arts, city planning and architecture; toexamine interaction between environment, nature and human beings; and tore-arrange these relationships at a healthy and rationale platform.

Theword of “bio-politics” had beencreated in line with belief that love of biology and “bios” (life) are the connection that attaches humanity to eachother. Accelerating economic progress and technological innovations bringsabout exhausted natural resources and environmental pollution at a speedy rate.

“Bios”(life) helps us for better perception of meaning of life. The dimensions ofbiology reach a new perspective, which is called “Bio-politics”. Life is themost important natural disposition in the world. Today, attitudes that bring itto danger had been created a global threat[3].(Proposal for a Bio-Syllabus)

International Prize for Outstanding Achievements
in the Race to Save the Environment


Food,clothing, housing, and other assets are must for living. However, all thesematerial properties are the products of labor force. Production involves allworking facilities that require production of material assets.

Productionis a condition for existence of entire society. Before struggling with science,art or politics, human beings should meet their primitive living needs.
Marxismillustrated that all societal lives depends upon production of obligatorymaterial assets.
Societalstructures, economic and political conditions have been changing through the historicalevolution; however, production always remains as a compulsory condition forsocieties’ existence.
Conditionsof production have been faced with great alterations from the ancient ages tillto present.
Theancient man had possessed only primitive instruments such as stone or thicksticks. For nourishment like gathering fruit or removing roots from soil theyhad used these instruments. In recent era, huge factories produce thousands andthousands various materials.
Sciencehad been determined that production involves three fundamental elements, thatis, labor force (working), working matter (object), and working instrument atall level of societal development. Everything that is implemented on laborforce is working matter. Everything that human being has impacts on workingmatters through the way lined by himself is working instrument.
Everythingobligatory for living are not generally exists present in nature. Human beingsmodify these natural objects properly for meeting their needs. Human beings cuttrees for building their shelter, or produce brick, cement, iron, concrete andother tools by using such a way. In order to meet the need of clothing, theycultivate cotton, transform cotton into string, and then weave and sew it.
Humanbeings do not trust the nature’s philanthropy or kindness; therefore, they haveto be effective on nature so as to acquire anything obligatory for living.Labor force creates a long-term war or fight (struggle) against nature. At thiswar, human beings benefit from natural powers such as animal force, vapor,electricity, chemical reactions, etc. in order to transform natural objects intomore suitable usage with parallel to desired aim[4].
Workingmatter (object) is something that is implemented on labor force. This could benot only natural resources but also the objects, which are not processedbefore.
Forexample, let’s think about a miner who find out coal or mine ore. The minerbreaks down the coal or mine ore, then take them on the ground. His working matteris coal layer or mine ore deposit, that is to say, a natural resource.
Thesame object can faced with various process phases. In political economy, theworking matter produced at the previous phase is called “raw material”.Therefore, each raw material is a working matter; however, each working matteris not a raw material.
Ground,underground and water system are universal working matters. Nature is a kind ofgiant chest containing inexhaustible working matters/subjects. The duty ofhuman beings is pull out and take these matters from sail or deepness of thesea.
However,the continuity of rapid economic growth is dependent on logic or illogic ofmore production and more consumption.
Ground,underground wealth and climate constitute integrity of natural conditions thatpossessed by human community. These natural conditions are changing gradually,but the forms of usage by human beings are altering very rapidly. Theseconditions’ usage form is mainly depending upon technical level.
Variousnatural wealth resources that were not regarded in economic importance untilthe recent time, now find wide usage areas. For instance, bioxide (boksit)which is the raw material of aluminum is not used anywhere at the near past.Today, they processed intensively.  Inrecent times, uranium deposits have begun to process after the invention ofatomic energy resources.
Thelogic of is opposite to the logic of industrialization. High level ofconsumption could not support eternally in the world with insufficient resources.Seeking for continuous growth and development of industry, will deteriorate theplanet and make people poor unavoidably[5].
Everythingthat people use for being efficient on working matter is working instrument.The first storehouse of working instruments had been the nature. The ancientmen find the stone that they use in the nature. In time, working objects thatwere created by human beings from natural objects gained an important role. Themost important role is taken by machines, or all equipments making productionthrough all the working instruments. Everything that determines the quality ofproduction is accurately working instruments. Perfection and renewal of workinginstruments are accelerated the sovereignty/dominance of human beings onnature.
Entirematerial conditions that are compulsory for production are working instruments.What is important is that soil, factory buildings, canals, roads regarded asuniversal working instruments and working matter/subject are the instruments ofproduction. An object can be regarded as working instrument, raw material orproduct with reference to its role and location in the working process.Therefore, coal is a raw material at the coke factory and a product at themine. Weaving workbench is a product at the textile machine factory and aworking instrument at the textile industry[6].
Instrumentsof production are static objects without labor force does not take them intoaction.
Laborforce is the most significant element of entire production. Animals perform themost complex actions instinctively; however, labor force is a conscious action.Labor force is solely peculiar/special tax for human beings.
Laborforce has basically two characteristics. Firstly, it precedes a working processwith beforehand determination aim; secondly, it depends tightly on workinginstruments’ production.
 Labor force is the preliminary condition forentire human lives.
Thething, that proofing human being is derived from animal cosmos, is thatproduction of working instruments, which were so primitive at the beginning.
Animalonly consumes the nature’s blessings; contrary to this, human beings areeffective on nature by using labor force and step by step gain sovereignty onnature, and situated it beneficially for their goals.
Oldeconomists rightfully stated that labor force is the father of wealth and themother of soil.
Thebeginning stages of societal development, productivity of labor force wassparely low and the instruments were so primitive. However, division of laborwas seen even at this era. Man had gone hunting, women had made housework,children and the aged people had tried to help them as much as possible.
Thedevelopment of production results in division of labor. The birth of peopleworking branches came on agenda. Tribes begun to deal with agriculture at theappropriate lands or survive with stock rising at other areas. The appearanceof craftsmen (potters, ironmongers, weapon crafts, millers, etc.) had beendeveloped the division of labor to a large extent.
The progressin the techniques results in developments in the production instruments anddeepens division of labor. Industry is separated from agriculture. With thedevelopment of machinery, new plentiful working branches came on agenda such asproduction of energy machines; production of working service machine;metallurgy, textile, shoe, nourishment industry machine production;agricultural machine production, etc.
Asseen above, production is the war of human beings against nature. Perfection ofproduction instruments and development of working power are the symptoms ofrising dominance of human beings on nature. This dominance/sovereignty isaccompanied with environmental problems.


“ECOLOGYmeans appropriate harmony between human beings and nature.”
                                                                                   C.F. von Weizsacker

Economy” brings basically in disharmonyand disorder with nature.
Thedefinition of “Economic Utility” is acquisitionof raw materials from nature directly or indirectly for production of assets.
Bio-Economy” means the investigation ofimpacts of biological sciences development on economy in order to measure thefuture social and economic growths. With the help of bio-politics, newtechnique cause new social and economic horizons and biology take part in manybranches like health, agriculture, arts, etc[7].
Natureis polluted by emission and waste materials as a result of production of rawmaterials. Due to this fact, nature exchange with natural raw materials so asto produce waste materials. Besides labor force and capital, nature is thethird exploited factor of production[8].
Themost important components of proposed education system will be ‘how we developthe location of nature’, ‘how we take in guarantee the rights of nature’ and‘how we preserve the conservation of nature’.
The topicof utilization of raw material and formation of waste materials has been knownsince centuries. Technological and scientific developments give opportunity toexploit the unsubstitutable natural resources on an accelerating rate and thiscause increasing amount of the unannihilated waste materials.
Naturecould not absorb these waste materials anymore and large amount of these wastematerials are harmful not only for the nature but also for the human beings themselves.
WhenMarx and Engels had written CommunistParty Manifesto, they speeches out the state would remove from the system.This would continue until reaching the abundant production in the worldwide,and this abundance would provide an opportunity of ‘everyone gets everythingaccording to their needs’ in a classless communist society.
Marxhad not anticipated increasing in population 12-14 times at two centuries.Furthermore, he had not foreseen “explosionof desires” realized by consumption society constituted by happy minority.
Moreover,Marx had not anticipated the gradual increasing inequality between developedcountries and other countries dominated by central capitalism.
Besides,possibly un-renewalable resources such as energy, productive mine beds,cultivated soil, unpolluted air, and so on, has been exhausted dramatically,had also been foreseen.
Scarcity,starvation and epidemic diseases that are increasing dramatically had not beenestimated.
Allof these facts force us to scrutinize fundamentallyof our opinions and understandings about future of humanity, “Optimal Population” of world, examplesof production and consumption[9].
Thefirst United Nations Conference on Human Environment held in Stockholm 15 years ago and emergencyinvitations had sent to countries.
Decisionsof Stockholmare the first international attempt for environment protection decisions andcertain missions/duties delivered to each country’s pioneer representatives.
Bythe side of one by one firms, the expenses for prevention or removal ofpollution is included in firm’s cost accounts and decreases the firm’sprofitability. On the other hand, the over pollution of environment affectednot only the society but also the firms and firms’ labors’ families in anharmful way.
Todo cleaning the environment, prevention of environmental balance corruption,finding solution for environmental problems make it obligatory that someresources for economic growth should be allocated for realize these aims.
Therefore,this can results in slowing down the velocity of economic growth.
Therule of “polluter pays” to the extent of determination helps society to pay greatamounts of values. Nonetheless, there is a risk that this value is paid by societyas a result of reflection to the prices.
Theuser of consolidation can share the expenditure for consolidation ofenvironmental conditions; utilize the environment as a “public good” throughuser’s charge is generally accepted[10].


“Ingeneral term, education has an aim to include people to life as an activeelement, to make people utilize worth of culture and civilization, to make theminnovator for contribution on science, arts, and their own worth’s.
Themost fundamental principle for realizing this aim should be make people toobtain rational decision making capability, and encourage them to utilizecultural resources that belongs to humanity in line with bringing them up withwide-sight-horizon and far from fanaticism.
In-schooleducation the aim should be in the framework of consciousness of teachers’duties and responsibilities, educate students according to rotate them to theout-world for deepening the knowledge and studies should be arranged dependentupon students’ activities.
Teacheris not only instructor but also educator. Under the umbrella of this twin duty,teacher should realize the national education’s aims by using possibilities ofschool and his/her own capabilities and should brings up well-informed peopleswho assimilate the knowledge and who make a connection to present time”. [11]
Education” is derived from Latinlanguage and has equivalent meanings in some European language. Educare means feeding where educere means get out from something,orientation and bringing up.

1.   Education indicates a social institution and an education system.Education has a structure and process rules as an institution.
2.   The word of education is used as a result of an action. Educationprepares and adapts youths for life.
3.   The word of education illustrates a process. This process connects twoor more people each other deliberately or un-purposely; make them to be inrelation with each other and encourage them to exchange their knowledge at areciprocal platform. Education exceeds environment of school, and it is theprocess that could be seen/ observed at all ages and all situations in life[12].


1.   Instead of being “Dynamic”, it is “Static”. Education method does notallow creating a dialog between student and teacher or even among students.
2.   It is not give an opportunity for research or invention, but rotelearning/ memorizing educational system exists.
3.   At present, there in no aim of bringing individuals up with general culture.Educate someone as an intellectual is not the goal of education system.
4.   The general approach of education is not totalitarian/ integrative butitem-based.
5.   As a conclusion, coarse and out-of-fashion education level exists. [13]

In Turkey, thereis no united education system in the county-wide level at present. Anintegrative education system can be established and existing system can bedeveloped in the county-wide level. Pre-university education structure is aproblem diffused on the worldwide.
Disciplinesdealing with ENVIRONMENT at universities are architecture, Planning, somebranches of engineering (Civil Engineering, Chemical Engineering, PhysicsEngineering, etc.) and sociology, economy, biology, geography, etc.
Inrecent years, “Environmental Engineering” departments were set up andEnvironmental Engineer as new occupation group was formed.
Thesedepartments’ educational programs are not give place to an interdisciplinaryeducation between the disciplines pronounced above.
Inmedicine, a protective and preventive medicine branch against contagiousdiseases exists like Environmental Health and Society Doctor.

“Asan old culture’s forms are dying, a new culture is created by few people whoare not afraid of lack of confidence sensation”

                                                                                                          Rudolf  BAHRO

Since“Environmental Education” is definedby different groups for different aims with different comments, a definition isneeded.
Inenvironmental education there has been no systematic approach at hundreds ofyears and there is no action towards a system approach located in generaleducation.
Environmentshould be taught to all members of the society without discrimination in agesand educational level. A system approach in environmental education should consistof following components:

1.   Environmental education should be comprehensive.
2.   Relations and interactions between global structure, nature and lifesegments should be included.
3.   Problems from these interactions results should be determined. [14]

Presenteducation has not been reached to a sufficient level in terms of learning andteaching the system’s defects and weaknesses from almost the Middle Ages.
Thereis no exact agreement by whole educationalists and planners on environmental education’sdefinition.


1.   “Environmental Education” is a new approach in terms of teachingrelations of human beings and environment. How human beings affect theirenvironment and how environment affect them is the main topic of the environmentaleducation.
2.   It is an integrative approach, which deals with structure of humanbeings and natural environment.
3.   It percepts school and its environmental society as an education laboratory;it teaches structure of human beings, natural and physical sources at anexperiment-based teaching process.
4.   It follows an interdisciplinary approach on such worldwide subjects associal, scientific, cultural, economic, etc.
5.   It roots from living in an urban society and lives in societaldevelopment.
6.   It aims to bring up self-confident and motivated individuals who haveenvironmental consciousness and responsibility.
7.   It brings a rationalist approach that helps to raise living quality,protect and developed it.
8.   Environmental education does not mean conservatism. It should not beregarded as a ‘nature education’ although it takes place in the environmentaleducation programs.
9.   Environmental education is not extremely hard new ecucational programand not requires huge money and resources. [15]


Aswe look out the history of education about environmental subject, it isdifficult to find an “original” education.
AncientGreek Philosophers can be regarded as the first environment teachers.Environment had been interpreted and concerned at various periods of humandevelopment.
Humanbeing-environment relationship is closely related with science, technology andprogress level.
Society’sunderstanding about environment has geographical and societal differences and differsaccording to each regional structure characteristics at the same period.
Today’sindividualistic and intellectual education is seen as scholastic and encyclopedia-rootedun-fashionable education although it exists in an environment that is technologicallydeveloped.
Basicresources that were used for explaining some environmental phenomenon such as“sun, soil, water” at the primitive communal societies left its place to theconcept of “God” at the Middle Ages.
Anotherinteresting issue on understanding the environment phenomenon is that strugglebetween the concepts of “Physics and Metaphysics” through thousands of years.
Thisphenomenon had taken its place in the concepts of “Science” and “Religion”through the history.
Parallelto the scientific development, interpreting the environment in a rational wayhad been accelerated in the philosophical and theological approach; thereforereligion had begun to lose its power on this issue.
Thisis the evolution of idea oriented to the contemporary society where Galilee had dyed due to this fact.
Thefailure of environmental approaches and understandings at those ages resultsfrom implementing item-based strategies instead of an integrative approach.
Environmenthas been examining with many “-logy” such as geology, biology, sociology, etc.

“Thisworld is not left behind as heritage by our ancestors; we borrowed it from ourchildren”
An African Proverb


“Whatshould we do in order to utilize the whole favors of industrialization and toreduce the natural destructions at its minimum level simultaneously? In moreconcrete sense, how sort of socio-politic arrangement system we develop for 5million automobile would exist in İstanbul that has 8 million population, daily500 kilogram garbage per person would collected, however, the Bosporus wouldstill remain brightly, the air would not be polluted, there would not accumulatedfuel oil at or beaches...Our duty is provision of sustainable development andprevention from harmful effects that limited us for utilizing the favors ofthis development: not prevention of development.” [16]
Itis very difficult to differentiate education and research. Under-developed countriesare not giving the required importance to the environmental problems’ educationand research due to such facts that gross national[17]product is low and distribution of this is unequal.
Developedcountries accomplished the renaissance and reform and they follow a rationalistway; therefore, this help them to solve environmental problems as well ascreating solutions for crisis that they faced with in all other fields.
Educationon environmental problems should be performed at everywhere continuously. Theinstitutions of formal education perform this bit by bit without give a name tothis. However, orientation to do this in an orderly manner and to reach aconscious level is important for prevention of waste of time, energy andmaterial. [18]


Contemporaryeducation addresses all stages of human life from birth to death.
Inmany countries, education before primary school, meaningly, education ofchildren before 6 years-old was institutionalized.
Educationof love of nature and consciousness should begin at early ages.
Atearly ages, children should be taught about bio-politics, human being-naturerelationship and economic consumption patterns.
Suchan education’s quality and program could be determined with the participationof psychoanalysts, psychologists, biologists and sociologists.


Itcan be possible for educating a primary school child (6-13 ages) aboutbio-politics and economic relations by arrangements in some courses’ scope and context.
Theconcepts of natural environment life’s foundations, human beings’ structuralenvironment and natural interactions, environmental pollution should be tookpart in subjects of history, literature, geography, social sciences,citizenship information and basic sciences (mathematics, geometry, physics,chemistry, biology).
Themain focus should especially be environmental problems results fromutilization, production and consumption of natural resources, waste materialsand acquiring returns, etc.
Itwould helps children for their advanced education that teaching them beginningfrom early ages of their childhood that they are the part of the biologicallife on earth and being sensitive to biological life.

The aims of Primary Education:

1.   To introduce their bio-environment to students, to provide creating aconnection with other living creatures and make them more conscious.
2.   To develop student’s sensation of love, kindness and other sensesrelated with preservation of nature by teaching them bringing-up process.
3.   To teach them the relations between creatures in the ecosystem and economicstructure’s effects on these relations.
4.   To create moral judgment by teaching them the possible hazards that life(Bios) would be faced with and showing the results of economic production andutilization of resources.

The Methods of Education:

Whileteaching primary school students on relations of bio-politics and economy, theeducation methods that activate five-sense should be implemented so as to bringthem up as sensitive towards nature and its rhythm. Sense of hear, smell, touchand see could be used in education with many directions.

- Effectiveexpressions and explanations,
- Methodsof individual research,
- Thestudies that developed their capabilities of determination and evaluationshould be used.

The Principles of Education:

1.   The principles of economic and bio-politic structures and functions,
2.   The relations between ecosystem and economy,
3.   Explaining the human being’s cruel, hunter, communal, parasite andcompetitor characteristics,
4.   Explaining the actions of all creatures and the actions of human beings,and especially explaining the economic dimensions of production andconsumption.
5.   Explaining the meaning of evolution, natural selection and formation ofspecies, quality of gene and DNA, and explaining that annihilation of speciescould not substituted with another thing.
6.   The concepts of increase in population and control of population, therelations between economy and population, development- welfare and population,
7.   Explaining the principles of photosynthesis, the importance ofagricultural products in economic side, and increase in environmental pollutionby usage of fertilizers and medicines.
8.   Quality of control in pollution and protection of natural environment,

Teachers/Instructors should encourage their students to questioning in moral, ethnic,religious, political, economical issues and other fields. (Proposal forBio-Syllabus)
Atpresent, education is not only a product of schools. Sociologists stress theimportance of “parallel school”.
Generallyout of schools, which are abstracted from world, children take many warningsfrom their living environment where it is not always useful.
Massmedia including newspapers, radio and television, daily experiences andsurroundings are educating them in a definite manner.
Theaim is to bring up a child with a balanced character, developed birthly ownedcapabilities, equipped with knowledge related to bio-politics and economy,acquired new capabilities, being in harmony with new situations that he/sheencounter, knowing to developed and correct himself/herself, and developedconsciousness of environment.
Itis necessary for creating human picture with consciousness about theirlocations on the world, equipped with universal cultural values, and makes themconscious about they are indebted to past and how the future will be.


Insecondary school education epoch, human character begin to take a shape, a termincludes very important years between childhood and adolescence.
Atthis epoch such an education should impose to children that give an opportunityfor contributing his/her general culture in terms of the subjects ofbio-politics and economy, developing his/her qualities with the help of consideration capabilities,developing sensation of responsibility towards himself/herself in terms ofspiritual and social contexts.
Inthis epoch, education has such aims as; to get an important status in thesociety, to sustain and conserve the culture, to reach a beautiful life withvirtue and justice, to bring up honest peoples in order to modernize publiclife and state.
Besidesthese aims, educational program should contains approaches mainly depends uponthe subjects of “Environment”, which is proposed to take place in every branchesof science (-logy) at years of three thousands in a wider position and therelations between economy and environment, which is our dominant researchtopic.
Theconcepts of bio-politics / economy should be added to branches of sciences suchas literature, grammar, biology, physics, chemistry, mathematics, geology, astronomy,etc.
Lecturesrooted from humanistic or social sciences (history, geography, social sciences,and music) should develop the students’ sensitivity and concerns onenvironmental issues.

1.   Ecosystem is managed with physical, biological and chemical rules,
2.   Human beings is controlled by values and norms,
3.   Issues such as the rules of economic system, labor force, production,consumption, environment; utilization of natural resources, annihilation ofspecies; soil, water, and air pollution should be taught with reference totheir reasons and relations.

The Aims of Secondary Education:

1.   To develop capabilities obtained at the primary school about subjectslike research and investigation on life (bios),
2.   To explain the relationship between bio-environment and human beings,
3.   To explain  the problems relatedwith the relationship between environment and economy,
4.   The ways/methods to discover the order or principles of bio-environment,
5.   The ways/methods to define and analyze, consider and think the reasons(economically dominant) affect the life and natural environment,
6.   To teach that there is a harmony and diversity in life, protection ofbiologic forms is needed, human life could only continue by this dynamicbalance,
7.   To show that human’s actions and behaviors, economic production,consumption and activity    are changingaccording to their cultures and values; however, environmental problems appeardepending on these actions.

The Methods of Education:

Itis proposed that secondary school programs should be arranged to teach therelationship between bio-politics and economy with imposing the consciousnessand anxiety of environment; and sustaining education and instruction by usingmethods listed below;

1.   Field Survey: Field surveys can be implemented, for example; visitingfactories, purification foundations, garbage factories, sewerage systempurification systems, which exhausted waste materials and made production;conservations and interviews with authorities at this fields; various social questionnaires;learning the decisions and opinions of local citizens about environmentalproblems, etc.
2.   Supporting education with visual materials such as television, radio,slide, etc.; collecting references systematically related with environmentalissues (books, magazines, periodicals, etc.) and forming an archive; and usingthese references in lectures when necessary.
3.   Laboratory Experiments: Laboratories of biology, chemistry, physics,which are still exist in educational system should be rearrange to adaptvarious educational experiments and researches related with biology and life;performing and teaching analysis about pollution.
4.   Organized Discussion and Conversation: To provide citizen participationto organized discussion and conversation related with the topic held in seminars,discussions, panels, conferences, etc.    

The Scope of Education:

1.   The chemical foundation of life and the effects of economic activitieson organic creatures; the reasons for pollution of  water, air, soil; the effects of excessproduction and consumption on annihilation of species,
2.   To explain the biological issues such as the structure and functions ofcell and  genetics,   
3.   Virus and its role in illnesses; the effects of increase in populationon environmental health; the economic cost of sanitary environment,
4.   Evolution Process: Explaining the processes of biological evolution, andsocial and economic evolution of human being comparatively,
5.   The biological structure of human being, the animal species ofvertebrates and invertebrates, reptiles, plants and natural relation betweenthem,
6.   The biotic and abiotic factors; mines; utilization of water, air andsoil; examining economically according to the concept of cost-benefit,
7.   Explaining the basic principles of economics, the relationships betweenenvironment-economy-bio-politics. (Proposal for Bio-Syllabus)


Toprepare individual for being organizer and member of a new society; to developindividuals physical and mental capabilities; to develop people as productivepower; to develop the opportunities of being innovator; to arrange in order newsociety’s new moral values and behavioral principles; equipped people as aproducer with necessary production knowledge and technical knowledge so as todevelop production for utility of nature and society; to developed peoples’political consciousness; to prepare them to participate in societyadministration directly and indirectly; to combine theory and practice, ideaand scientific knowledge could possibly realized by performing required reformsin university education. [19]

Understandingbio-environment more accurately, performing investigations at scientific levelin the concept of the relationship between environment and economy is seemedmore possible at university level.
Theuniversity education and to create conscious peoples is so important due to thefact that university students are the potential decision-makers and leaders ofthe society.
Universitiesshould cover the courses listed below in their bachelor’s degree programsrelated with life (bios) and bio-politics;

1.   For Science, Architecture and Engineering Bachelor’s degree students,the course of “Evaluation of Life and Bio-design”.  
Theaim should be teaching the most necessary information about performing the mostproper design and implementation in line with environment and bio-politics withthe ignorance of minimum cost-maximum benefit principle, in the framework ofdesigning patterns of economic production and consumption (e.g. a factorydesign, food packaging, and storing, waste material purification systems)    

2.   For Commerce, Accounting and Economy Bachelor’s degree students, thecourse of “Production and The Corruption of Bio-environment in Relation withProduction”.
Re-interpretingeconomy in terms of different production aims, means and techniques, which arediffer according to different systems (capitalist, socialist); re-locating the environmentallysensitive production methods, which reduce the utilization of natural resourcesat minimum, reduce the amount of waste material at its minimum level duringproduction or re-use of these waste materials; prevention of destruction ofbio-environment; teaching the methods of environment protection and reparation.

3.   For Law Bachelor’s degree students, the courses of  “Utilization of Law as a Control Mechanism onScience and Technology” or “Sociology of Law”
Theeducation should cover such topics: Examining different law approaches, whichare distinct in free market economy or centralized economic systems; arranginga new law system, which aims to protect and develop the environment,prohibiting the approaches that seem environment and life as an economicalmaterial, punish people with the principle of “polluter pays”, determining thepotential pollution areas before and taking precautions in the framework ofplanned process, regulating the land-use and utilization of natural resources.

4.   To instruct “Bio-Technology” course as a professional lecture.
Inscope of this course, bio-technology, examining economic dimensions ofbio-technology, performing new evaluations with including environmental factoraccording to cost-benefit analysis is proposed.

5.   The course of “Environment” and other scientific courses related withenvironment.
Thecourse of “Environment” should be instructed as a “must course” in all Scienceand Social Sciences fields/branches.
Exposedenvironment consciousness’ continuity with educational means could only bepossible by instructing this in the concept of a scientific course.
Theconcept and the relationship of Environment/bio-politics/economy is thecandidate chapter of this course.

6.   For Human and Social Sciences Bachelor’s degree students, the course of“The Role of Values and Behaviors in the Protection and Management ofBio-systems”
Society’ssocial and cultural norms and values, written and unwritten laws and rules,traditions and customs are affective on the basis of values and behaviors ofhuman beings.
Itis necessary for changing the judgment, which believes the nature isinexhaustible and unpolluted lasting for centuries.

Basic Guidelines of University Education:

1.   Studies should be held in order to develop proper and unpollutedtechnologies,
2.   It is necessary to provide utilization of resources in an effective andequal way,
3.   Biologic diversity should be maximized with the help of rational andlogical strategies,
4.   Increase in population should be controlled in order to implement economicand bio-environmental programs effectively.

“Ifwe do not desire to kill ourselves by ability of technology, we have todecrease population density or our demands seriously in a historically shorttime.” [20]
Itis very important to perform field surveys, and research and evaluations in a disciplinaryway at the university education. Students should learn to be conscious in termsof legal, political and moral aspects contrary to multi-dimensional life.


Theconcept of “continuous education” hasbecome popular in new forms of education.
Thistype of education addresses/ directs the adults who have already an occupancyor skill. The main aim of this education is not to give a diploma/degree.
Principlesof the birth of third term universities and providing education for the agedare being exposed / put forward.
Therefore,education is transformed to addresses the all step of human life from birth todeath. [21]
Moreover,environmental problems require the urgent solutions, and spreading theenvironmental education and consciousness over the people who completed theireducation and educating these people on these issues.

Potential Education Group/ Mass the followings couldtake place;

-Managers and decision-makers of industry organization and firm,
-Public Administrators,
-Bio-environment activists,
-Low-degree educated people,

Itis possible to reach these people or groups directly by using “mass media”instruments such as satellite, television, radio, newspapers (corner ofenvironment and economy), magazines, periodicals, professional publications,advertisements. The concern and attention of public groups should be orientedto life and economic programs related with life by using these publications andmedia.
Therefore,it is supposed to be realize the “environmentconsciousness” and “anxiety of environment” in wider meanings, and performinga sanitary transition to a new societal order.


AKAT,A.S., “İktisatçılar ve Çevre”, ŞEHİR Dergisi, Çevre Özel Sayısı, Sayı:11, 1988.

ARVANITIS,A.V., “Biopolitics-Dimensions of Biology” , I.Int. Conf. on BİOPOLİTİCS The Bio-Environment, May 6-10-1987, Pub.B.I.O. , 1988, Athens, Greece.

BAHRO,R., “Nasıl Sosyalizm?, Hangi Yeşil? , Ne İçin Sanayi? , Der. , Tanıl Bora,Ayrıntı yay. 1989.

DUMONT, R., “Uçurumun KıyısındakiDünyamız” , Çev. Semih Tiryakioğlu, Varlık Yay. Nisan, 1976.

GÜREL,S., “Systems Approach to Environmental Education” June, 1973.

İstanbul3.İdare Mahkemesi, 7.6.1988 tarih ve 1988/26 Sayılı Kararı.

KELEŞ,R., “Kentleşme ve Konut Politikası”, A.Ü.SBF Yay. No: 540, Ank.1984.

LEONTIEV,L., “Marksist Ekonomi Politiğin İlkeleri, Çev. Kenan Somer, Sol yay.1976, Ank.

PORITT,J., “Yeşil Politika” , Çev. Alev Türker, Ayrıntı Yay. İnceleme Dizisi, 1988.

Proposalfor a Bio-syllabus.

SIMONIS,U.E. , “Ecology and Economic Policy”,
I.   Int. Conf. on BIOPOLITICSThe Bio-Environment, May 6-10-1987,Pub.B.I.O. , 1988, Athens, Greece.

TANİLLİ,S., “Nasıl Bir Eğitim İstiyoruz”, 1988, Amaç Yay.

YAVUZ,F., “Çevre Sorunları”, A.Ü.SBF Yay. No:385, 1975

[1] 1855’te topraklarını satın almak isteyen ABDHükümetine Dwam Kızılderili reisinin cevabı
[2] LEONTIEV, L. , 1976, s.10
[3] ARVANITIS, A.V. , 1988, s.15
[4] LEONTIEV, L. , 1976, s.14
[5] PORRITT, J. , 1988. S.57
[6] LEONTIEV, L. , 1976, s.17
[7] ARVANITIS, A.V. , 1988, s.18
[8] SIMONIS, U.E. , 1988, s.163
[9] DUMONT, R. , 1976. S.16
[10] KELEŞ, R. , 1984, s.442
[11] İstanbul 3. İdare Mahkemesi, 7.6.1988 tarihve 1988/26 Sayılı Kararı
[12] TANİLLİ, S., 1988, s.12-13
[13] GÜREL, S. , 1973, s.14
[14] GÜREL, S. , 1973, s.5
[15] GÜREL, S. , 1973, age, s.6
[16] AKAT, A.S. , 1988, s.23
[17] YAVUZ, F. , 1975, s.166
[18] YAVUZ, F. , 1975, s.168
[19] TANİLLİ, S. 1988, s.26
[20] BAHRO, R. , 1989, s.143
[21] TANİLLİ, S. , 1988, s.14

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